Note 2 - Significant Accounting Policies
|9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2023
|Notes to Financial Statements
|Significant Accounting Policies [Text Block]
Note 2 – Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
These condensed consolidated financial statements include the financial results of Monopar Therapeutics Inc., its wholly-owned French subsidiary, Monopar Therapeutics, SARL, and its wholly-owned Australian subsidiary, Monopar Therapeutics Australia Pty Ltd, and have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the U.S. (“GAAP”) and include all disclosures required by GAAP for financial reporting. All intercompany accounts have been eliminated. The principal accounting policies applied in the preparation of these condensed consolidated financial statements are set out below and have been consistently applied in all periods presented. The Company has been primarily involved in performing research activities, developing product candidates, and raising capital to support and expand these activities.
The accompanying interim unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements contain all normal, recurring adjustments necessary to present fairly the Company’s condensed consolidated financial position as of September 30, 2023, and the Company’s condensed consolidated results of operations and comprehensive loss for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022, and the Company’s condensed consolidated cash flows for the nine months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022.
The interim condensed consolidated results of operations and comprehensive loss and condensed consolidated cash flows for the periods presented are not necessarily indicative of the condensed consolidated results of operations or cash flows which may be reported for the remainder of 2023 or for any future period. Certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in financial statements prepared in accordance with GAAP have been condensed or omitted. The accompanying unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited financial statements and notes thereto for the year ended December 31, 2022, included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) on March 23, 2023.
The Company’s consolidated functional currency is the U.S. Dollar. The Company’s Australian subsidiary and French subsidiary use the Australian Dollar and European Euro, respectively, as their functional currency. At each quarter-end, each foreign subsidiary’s balance sheets are translated into U.S. Dollars based upon the quarter-end exchange rate, while their statements of operations and comprehensive loss and statements of cash flows are translated into U.S. Dollars based upon an average exchange rate during the period.
Comprehensive loss represents net loss plus any income or losses not reported in the condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss, such as foreign currency translations gains and losses and unrealized gains and losses on debt security investments that are reflected on the Company’s condensed consolidated statements of stockholders’ equity.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities, and reported amounts of expenses in the condensed consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Going Concern Assessment
The Company applies Accounting Standards Codification 205-40 (“ASC 205-40”), Disclosure of Uncertainties about an Entity’s Ability to Continue as a Going Concern, which the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued to provide guidance on determining when and how reporting companies must disclose going concern uncertainties in their financial statements. ASC 205-40 requires management to perform interim and annual assessments of an entity’s ability to continue as a going concern within one year of the date of issuance of the entity’s financial statements (or within one year after the date on which the financial statements are available to be issued, when applicable). Further, a company must provide certain disclosures if there is “substantial doubt about the entity’s ability to continue as a going concern.” In September 2023, the Company analyzed its cash requirements at least through November 2024 and has determined that, based upon the Company’s current available cash, the Company has no substantial doubt about its ability to continue as a going concern.
The Company considers all highly liquid investments purchased with a maturity of three months or less on the date of purchase to be cash equivalents. Cash equivalents as of September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, consisted of two money market accounts and U.S. Treasury Bills.
The Company considers all of its investments in debt securities (U.S. Government or Agencies), with maturities at the date of purchase from over three months to one year to be available-for-sale securities. These investments are recorded at fair value with the unrealized gains and losses reflected in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) on the Company’s condensed consolidated balance sheets. Realized gains and losses from the sale of investments, if any are determined, are recorded net in the condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss. The investments selected by the Company have a low level of inherent credit risk given they are issued by the U.S. government and any changes in their fair value are primarily attributable to changes in interest rates and market liquidity. Investments as of September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, consisted of U.S. Treasury Bills with maturities of over three months to one year.
Prepayments are expenditures for goods or services before the goods are used or the services are received and are charged to operations as the benefits are realized. Prepaid expenses may include payments to development collaborators in excess of actual expenses incurred by the collaborator measured at the end of each reporting period. Prepayments also include insurance premiums, dues and subscriptions and software costs of $10,000 or more per year that are expensed monthly over the life of the contract, which is typically one year. Prepaid expenses are reflected on the Company’s condensed consolidated balance sheets as other current assets.
Lease agreements are evaluated to determine whether an arrangement is or contains a lease in accordance with ASC 842, Leases. Right-of-use lease assets and lease liabilities are recognized based on the present value of the future minimum lease payments over the lease term at the commencement date. The right-of-use lease asset on the Company’s condensed consolidated balance sheets includes any lease payments made and excludes lease incentives. The incremental borrowing taking into consideration the Company’s credit quality and borrowing rate for similar assets is used in determining the present value of future payments. Lease expense is recorded as general and administrative expenses on the Company’s condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss.
Concentration of Credit Risk
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentration of credit risk consist of cash and cash equivalents. The Company maintains cash and cash equivalents at two reputable financial institutions. As of September 30, 2023, the balance at one financial institution was in excess of the $250,000 Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) insurable limit. The Company has not experienced any losses on its deposits since inception and management believes the Company is not exposed to significant risks with respect to these financial institutions.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
For financial instruments consisting of cash and cash equivalents, investments, accounts payable, accrued expenses, and other current liabilities, the carrying amounts are reasonable estimates of fair value due to their relatively short maturities.
The Company adopted ASC 820, Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures, as amended, which addresses the measurement of the fair value of financial assets and financial liabilities. Under this standard, fair value is defined as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability (i.e., the “exit price”) in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date.
The standard establishes a hierarchy for inputs used in measuring fair value that maximizes the use of observable inputs and minimizes the use of unobservable inputs by requiring that the most observable inputs be used when available. Observable inputs reflect assumptions market participants would use in pricing an asset or liability based on market data obtained from independent sources. Unobservable inputs reflect a reporting entity’s pricing an asset or liability developed based on the best information available under the circumstances. The fair value hierarchy consists of the following three levels:
Level 1 - instrument valuations are obtained from real-time quotes for transactions in active exchange markets involving identical assets.
Level 2 - instrument valuations are obtained from readily available pricing sources for comparable instruments.
Level 3 - instrument valuations are obtained without observable market values and require a high-level of judgment to determine the fair value.
Determining which category an asset or liability falls within the hierarchy requires significant judgment. The Company evaluates its hierarchy disclosures each reporting period. There were no transfers between Level 1, 2 or 3 of the fair value hierarchy during the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022. The following table presents the assets and liabilities that are reported at fair value on our condensed consolidated balance sheets on a recurring basis. No values were recorded in Level 2 or Level 3 as of September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022.
Assets and Liabilities Measured at Fair Value on a Recurring Basis
Net Loss per Share
Net loss per share for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022, is calculated by dividing net loss by the weighted-average shares of common stock outstanding during the periods. Diluted net loss per share for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022, is calculated by dividing net loss by the weighted-average shares of the sum of a) weighted average common stock outstanding (14,118,397 and 12,754,685 shares for the three months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022 respectively, and 13,551,776 and 12,664,387 shares for the nine months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022, respectively) and b) potentially dilutive shares of common stock (such as stock options and restricted stock units) outstanding during the period. As of September 30, 2023 and 2022, potentially dilutive securities included stock-based awards to purchase up to 2,580,829 and 1,928,152 shares of the Company’s common stock, respectively. For the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022, potentially dilutive securities are excluded from the computation of fully diluted net loss per share as their effect is anti-dilutive.
Research and Development Expenses
Research and development (“R&D”) costs are expensed as incurred. Major components of R&D expenses include salaries and benefits paid to the Company’s R&D staff, compensation expenses of G&A personnel performing R&D, fees paid to consultants and to the entities that conduct certain R&D activities on the Company’s behalf and costs of materials and supplies which were used in R&D activities during the reporting period.
Clinical Trials Accruals
The Company accrues and expenses the costs for clinical trial activities performed by third parties based upon estimates of the percentage of work completed over the life of the individual study in accordance with agreements established with contract research organizations, service providers, and clinical trial sites. The Company estimates the amounts to accrue based upon discussions with internal clinical personnel and external service providers as to progress or stage of completion of trials or services and the agreed upon fees to be paid for such services. Costs of setting up clinical trial sites for participation in the trials are expensed immediately as R&D expenses. Clinical trial site costs related to patient screening and enrollment are accrued as patients are screened/entered into the trial.
The Company and its collaborative partners are active participants in collaborative agreements and all parties would be exposed to significant risks and rewards depending on the technical and commercial success of the activities. Contractual payments to the other parties in collaboration agreements and costs incurred by the Company when the Company is deemed to be the principal participant for a given transaction are recognized on a gross basis in R&D expenses. Royalties and license payments are recorded as earned.
During the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022, no milestones were met, and no royalties were earned, therefore, the Company did not pay or accrue/expense any license or royalty payments.
The Company has various agreements licensing technology utilized in the development of its product or technology programs. The licenses contain success milestone obligations and royalties on future sales. During the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022, no milestones were met, and no royalties were earned, therefore, the Company did not pay or accrue/expense any license or royalty payments under any of its license agreements.
The Company expenses costs relating to issued patents and patent applications, including costs relating to legal, renewal and application fees, as a component of general and administrative expenses in its condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss.
The Company uses an asset and liability approach for accounting for deferred income taxes, which requires recognition of deferred income tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been recognized in its financial statements but have not been reflected in its taxable income. Estimates and judgments are required in the calculation of certain tax liabilities and in the determination of the recoverability of certain deferred income tax assets, which arise from temporary differences and carryforwards. Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are measured using the currently enacted tax rates that apply to taxable income in effect for the years in which those tax assets and liabilities are expected to be realized or settled.
The Company regularly assesses the likelihood that its deferred income tax assets will be realized from recoverable income taxes or recovered from future taxable income. To the extent that the Company believes any amounts are not “more likely than not” to be realized, the Company records a valuation allowance to reduce the deferred income tax assets. In the event the Company determines that all or part of the net deferred tax assets are not realizable in the future, an adjustment to the valuation allowance would be charged to earnings in the period such determination is made. Similarly, if the Company subsequently determines deferred income tax assets that were previously determined to be unrealizable are now realizable, the respective valuation allowance would be reversed, resulting in an adjustment to earnings in the period such determination is made.
Internal Revenue Code Sections 382 and 383 (“Sections 382 and 383”) limit the use of net operating loss (“NOL”) carryforwards and R&D credits, after an ownership change. To date, the Company has not conducted a Section 382 or 383 study, however, because the Company will continue to raise significant amounts of equity in the coming years, the Company expects that Sections 382 and 383 will limit the Company’s usage of NOLs and R&D credits in the future.
ASC 740, Income Taxes, requires that the tax benefit of net operating losses, temporary differences, and credit carryforwards be recorded as an asset to the extent that management assesses that realization is “more likely than not.” Realization of the future tax benefits is dependent on the Company’s ability to generate sufficient taxable income within the carryforward period. The Company has reviewed the positive and negative evidence relating to the realizability of the deferred tax assets and has concluded that the deferred tax assets are not “more likely than not” to be realized. As a result, the Company recorded a full valuation allowance as of September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022. U.S. Federal R&D tax credits from 2016 to 2019 were utilized to reduce payroll taxes in future periods and were recorded as other current assets (anticipated to be received within 12 months), on the Company’s condensed consolidated balance sheets. The Company intends to maintain the valuation allowance until sufficient evidence exists to support its reversal. The Company regularly reviews its tax positions. For a tax benefit to be recognized, the related tax position must be “more likely than not” to be sustained upon examination. Any amount recognized is generally the largest benefit that is “more likely than not” to be realized upon settlement. The Company’s policy is to recognize interest and penalties related to income tax matters as an income tax expense. For the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022, the Company did not have any interest or penalties associated with unrecognized tax benefits.
The Company is subject to U.S. Federal, Illinois and California state income taxes. In addition, the Company is subject to local tax laws of France and Australia. Tax regulations within each jurisdiction are subject to the interpretation of the related tax laws and regulations and require significant judgment to apply. Monopar was originally formed as an LLC in December 2014, then incorporated on December 16, 2015. The Company is subject to U.S. Federal, state and local tax examinations by tax authorities for the tax years 2015 through 2022. The Company does not anticipate significant changes to its current uncertain tax positions through September 30, 2023.
The Company accounts for stock-based compensation arrangements with employees, non-employee directors and consultants using a fair value method, which requires the recognition of compensation expense for costs related to all stock-based awards, including stock option and restricted stock unit (“RSU”) grants. The fair value method requires the Company to estimate the fair value of stock-based payment awards on the date of grant using an option pricing model or the closing stock price on the date of grant in the case of RSUs.
Stock-based compensation expense for awards granted to employees, non-employee directors and consultants are based on the fair value of the underlying instrument calculated using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model on the date of grant for stock options and using the closing stock price on the date of grant for RSUs and recognized as expense on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period, which is the vesting period. Determining the appropriate fair value model and related assumptions requires judgment, including estimating the future stock price volatility and expected terms. The expected volatility rates are estimated based on the Company’s historical actual volatility over the two-year period from its initial public offering on December 18, 2019 through December 31, 2021 for stock-based awards granted in 2022. For awards granted during the nine months ended September 30, 2023, the expected volatility rates were estimated based on the Company’s historical actual volatility over the three-year period from its initial public offering on December 18, 2019, through December 31, 2022. The expected term for options granted to date is estimated using the simplified method. Forfeitures only include known forfeitures to-date as the Company accounts for forfeitures as they occur due to a limited history of forfeitures. The Company has not paid dividends and does not anticipate paying a cash dividend in the future vesting period and, accordingly, uses an expected dividend yield of zero. The risk-free interest rate is based on the rate of U.S. Treasury securities with maturities consistent with the estimated expected term of the awards.