2. Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2020
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Significant Accounting Policies||
Basis of Presentation
These consolidated financial statements include the financial results of Monopar Therapeutics Inc., its wholly-owned French subsidiary, Monopar Therapeutics, SARL, and its wholly-owned Australian subsidiary, Monopar Therapeutics Australia Pty Ltd and have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“GAAP”) and include all disclosures required by GAAP for financial reporting. All intercompany accounts have been eliminated. The principal accounting policies applied in the preparation of these consolidated financial statements are set out below and have been consistently applied in all periods presented. The Company has been primarily involved in performing research activities, developing product candidates, and raising capital to support and expand these activities.
The accompanying consolidated financial statements contain all normal, recurring adjustments necessary to present fairly the Company’s consolidated financial position as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, the Company’s consolidated results of operations and comprehensive loss and the Company’s consolidated cash flows for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 .
The Company's consolidated functional currency is the U.S. Dollar. The Company's Australian subsidiary and French subsidiary use the Australian Dollar and European Euro, respectively, as their functional currency. At each quarter-end, each foreign subsidiary's balance sheets are translated into U.S. Dollars based upon the quarter-end exchange rate, while their statements of operations and comprehensive loss and statements of cash flows are translated into U.S. Dollars based upon an average exchange rate during the period.
Comprehensive loss represents net loss plus any gains or losses not reported in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss, such as foreign currency translations gains and losses that are typically reflected on the Company’s consolidated statements of stockholders’ equity.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities, and reported amounts of expenses in the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Going Concern Assessment
The Company applies Accounting Standards Codification 205-40 (“ASC 205-40”), Disclosure of Uncertainties about an Entity’s Ability to Continue as a Going Concern, which the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued to provide guidance on determining when and how reporting companies must disclose going concern uncertainties in their financial statements. ASC 205-40 requires management to perform interim and annual assessments of an entity’s ability to continue as a going concern within one year of the date of issuance of the entity’s financial statements (or within one year after the date on which the financial statements are available to be issued, when applicable). Further, a company must provide certain disclosures if there is “substantial doubt about the entity’s ability to continue as a going concern.” In February 2021, the Company analyzed its cash requirements through March 2022 and has determined that, based upon the Company’s current available cash, the Company has no substantial doubt about its ability to continue as a going concern.
The Company considers all highly liquid investments purchased with a maturity of 90 days or less on the date of purchase to be cash equivalents. Cash equivalents as of December 31, 2020 and 2019 consisted of one money market account.
Deferred Offering Costs
Deferred offering costs represent legal, auditing, travel and filing fees related to fundraising efforts that have not yet been concluded.
Prepayments are expenditures for goods or services before the goods are used or the services are received and are charged to operations as the benefits are realized. Prepaid expenses include payments to development collaborators in excess of actual expenses incurred by the collaborator, measured at the end of each reporting period. Prepayments also include insurance premiums and software costs of $10,000 or more that are expensed monthly over the life of the contract. Prepaid expenses are reflected on the Company’s consolidated balance sheets as other current assets.
In May 2020, the Company applied for and received a $122,400 bank loan pursuant to the Paycheck Protection Program (“PPP”) established pursuant to the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act, as administered by the U.S. Small Business Administration (“SBA”).
The repayment of the PPP loan is forgivable by the SBA, if certain conditions are met, namely the PPP loan must be used primarily for payroll during the 24-week period following receipt of the loan, without significant staffing reductions during that period. The Company applied for and received the PPP loan forgiveness on December 11, 2020, at which time the PPP loan amount was recorded as other income on the Company’s consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss.
Concentration of Credit Risk
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentration of credit risk consist of cash and cash equivalents. The Company maintains cash and cash equivalents at two reputable financial institutions. As of December 31, 2020, the balance at one financial institution was in excess of the $250,000 Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) insurable limit. The Company has not experienced any losses on its deposits since inception and management believes the Company is not exposed to significant risks with respect to these financial institutions.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
For financial instruments consisting of cash and cash equivalents, accounts payable, accrued expenses, other current liabilities and bank loans, the carrying amounts are reasonable estimates of fair value due to their relatively short maturities.
The Company adopted ASC 820, Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures, as amended, which addresses the measurement of the fair value of financial assets and financial liabilities. Under this standard, fair value is defined as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability (i.e., the “exit price”) in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date.
The standard establishes a hierarchy for inputs used in measuring fair value that maximizes the use of observable inputs and minimizes the use of unobservable inputs by requiring that the most observable inputs be used when available. Observable inputs reflect assumptions market participants would use in pricing an asset or liability based on market data obtained from independent sources. Unobservable inputs reflect a reporting entity’s pricing an asset or liability developed based on the best information available under the circumstances. The fair value hierarchy consists of the following three levels:
Level 1 - instrument valuations are obtained from real-time quotes for transactions in active exchange markets involving identical assets.
Level 2 - instrument valuations are obtained from readily available pricing sources for comparable instruments.
Level 3 - instrument valuations are obtained without observable market values and require a high-level of judgment to determine the fair value.
Determining which category an asset or liability falls within the hierarchy requires significant judgment. The Company evaluates its hierarchy disclosures each reporting period. There were no transfers between Level 1, 2 or 3 of the fair value hierarchy during the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019. The following table presents the assets and liabilities recorded that are reported at fair value on our consolidated balance sheets on a recurring basis. No values were recorded in Level 2 or Level 3 at December 31, 2020 and 2019.
Assets and Liabilities Measured at Fair Value on a Recurring Basis
(1) Cash equivalents represent the fair value of the Company’s investment in a money market account.
Net Loss per Share
Net loss per share for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 is calculated by dividing net loss by the weighted-average shares of common stock outstanding during the period. Diluted net loss per share for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 is calculated by dividing net loss by the weighted-average shares of the sum of a) weighted average common stock outstanding (10,958,256 shares as of December 31, 2020; 9,321,195 shares as of December 31, 2019) and b) potentially dilutive shares of common stock (such as stock options and restricted stock units) outstanding during the period. As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, potentially dilutive securities included stock-based awards to purchase up to 1,298,643 and 1,087,463 shares of the Company’s common stock, respectively. For the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, potentially dilutive securities are excluded from the computation of fully diluted net loss per share as their effect is anti-dilutive.
Research and Development Expenses
Research and development (“R&D”) costs are expensed as incurred. Major components of R&D expenses include salaries and benefits paid to the Company’s R&D staff, fees paid to consultants and to the entities that conduct certain R&D activities on the Company’s behalf and materials and supplies which are used in R&D activities during the reporting period.
The Company accrues and expenses the costs for clinical trial activities performed by third parties based upon estimates of the percentage of work completed over the life of the individual study in accordance with agreements established with contract research organizations, service providers, and clinical trial sites. The Company determines the estimates through discussions with internal clinical personnel and external service providers as to progress or stage of completion of trials or services and the agreed upon fee to be paid for such services. Costs of setting up clinical trial sites for participation in the trials are expensed immediately as R&D expenses. Clinical trial site costs related to patient screening and enrollment are accrued as patients are screened/entered into the trial. In December 2020, the Company activated clinical trial sites for its VOICE clinical trial but no patients had been dosed; prior to that, no clinical trial site costs had been incurred.
The Company and its collaborative partners are active participants in collaborative agreements and all parties would be exposed to significant risks and rewards depending on the technical and commercial success of the activities. Contractual payments to the other parties in collaboration agreements and costs incurred by the Company when the Company is deemed to be the principal participant for a given transaction are recognized on a gross basis in R&D expenses. Royalties and license payments are recorded as earned.
During the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, no milestones were met and no royalties were earned, therefore, the Company did not pay or accrue/expense any license or royalty payments.
The Company has various agreements licensing technology utilized in the development of its product or technology programs. The licenses contain success milestone obligations and royalties on future sales. During the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, no milestones were met and no royalties were earned, therefore, the Company did not pay or accrue/expense any license or royalty payments under any of its license agreements.
The Company expenses costs relating to issued patents and patent applications, including costs relating to legal, renewal and application fees, as a component of general and administrative expenses in its consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss.
On December 16, 2015, the Company began using an asset and liability approach for accounting for deferred income taxes, which requires recognition of deferred income tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been recognized in its financial statements but have not been reflected in its taxable income. Estimates and judgments are required in the calculation of certain tax liabilities and in the determination of the recoverability of certain deferred income tax assets, which arise from temporary differences and carryforwards. Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are measured using the currently enacted tax rates that apply to taxable income in effect for the years in which those tax assets and liabilities are expected to be realized or settled.
The Company regularly assesses the likelihood that its deferred income tax assets will be realized from recoverable income taxes or recovered from future taxable income. To the extent that the Company believes any amounts are not “more likely than not” to be realized, the Company records a valuation allowance to reduce the deferred income tax assets. In the event the Company determines that all or part of the net deferred tax assets are not realizable in the future, an adjustment to the valuation allowance would be charged to earnings in the period such determination is made. Similarly, if the Company subsequently determines deferred income tax assets that were previously determined to be unrealizable are now realizable, the respective valuation allowance would be reversed, resulting in an adjustment to earnings in the period such determination is made.
Internal Revenue Code Sections 382 and 383 (“Sections 382 and 383”) limit the use of net operating loss (“NOL”) carryforwards and R&D credits, after an ownership change. To date, the Company has not conducted a Section 382 or 383 study, however, because the Company will continue to raise significant amounts of equity in the coming years, the Company expects that Sections 382 and 383 will limit the Company’s usage of NOLs and R&D credits in the future.
ASC 740, Income Taxes, requires that the tax benefit of net operating losses, temporary differences, and credit carryforwards be recorded as an asset to the extent that management assesses that realization is "more likely than not." Realization of the future tax benefits is dependent on the Company's ability to generate sufficient taxable income within the carryforward period. The Company has reviewed the positive and negative evidence relating to the realizability of the deferred tax assets and has concluded that the deferred tax assets are not “more likely than not” to be realized. As a result, the Company recorded a full valuation allowance as of December 31, 2020 and 2019. U.S. Federal R&D tax credits from 2016 to 2019 were utilized to reduce payroll taxes in future periods and were recorded as other current assets for amounts anticipated to be received within 12 months and other non-current assets for amounts anticipated to be received beyond 12 months on the Company’s consolidated balance sheets. The Company intends to maintain the valuation allowance until sufficient evidence exists to support its reversal. The Company regularly reviews its tax positions. For a tax benefit to be recognized, the related tax position must be “more likely than not” to be sustained upon examination. Any amount recognized is generally the largest benefit that is “more likely than not” to be realized upon settlement. The Company’s policy is to recognize interest and penalties related to income tax matters as an income tax expense. For the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, the Company did not have any interest or penalties associated with unrecognized tax benefits.
The Company is subject to U.S. Federal, Illinois and California income taxes. In addition, the Company is subject to local tax laws of France and Australia. Tax regulations within each jurisdiction are subject to the interpretation of the related tax laws and regulations and require significant judgment to apply. The Company was incorporated on December 16, 2015 and is subject to U.S. Federal, state and local tax examinations by tax authorities for the tax years 2015 through 2020. The Company does not anticipate significant changes to its current uncertain tax positions through December 31, 2020. The Company plans on filing its U.S. Federal and state tax returns for the year ended December 31, 2020 prior to the extended filing deadlines in all jurisdictions.
The Company accounts for stock-based compensation arrangements with employees, non-employee directors and consultants using a fair value method, which requires the recognition of compensation expense for costs related to all stock-based awards, including stock option and restricted stock unit (“RSU”) grants. The fair value method requires the Company to estimate the fair value of stock-based payment awards on the date of grant using an option pricing model or the closing stock price on the date of grant in the case of RSUs.
Stock-based compensation expense for awards granted to employees, non-employee directors and consultants are based on the fair value of the underlying instrument calculated using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model on the date of grant for stock options and using the closing stock price on the date of grant for RSUs and recognized as expense on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period, which is the vesting period. Determining the appropriate fair value model and related assumptions requires judgment, including estimating the future stock price volatility, forfeiture rates and expected terms. The expected volatility rates are estimated based on the actual volatility of comparable public companies over recent historical periods of the same length as the expected term. The Company selected these companies based on reasonably comparable characteristics, including market capitalization, stage of corporate development and with historical share price information sufficient to meet the expected term (life) of the stock-based awards. The expected term for options granted to date is estimated using the simplified method. Forfeitures are estimated at the time of grant and revised, if necessary, in subsequent periods if actual forfeitures differ from those estimates. The Company has not paid dividends and does not anticipate paying a cash dividend in the future vesting period and, accordingly, uses an expected dividend yield of zero. The risk-free interest rate is based on the rate of U.S. Treasury securities with maturities consistent with the estimated expected term of the awards. Prior to January 1, 2019, the measurement of consultant stock-based compensation was subject to periodic adjustments as the underlying equity instruments vested and was recognized as an expense over the period in which services were rendered.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In August 2018, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Updates (“ASU”) No. 2018-13, Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Disclosure Framework—Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement. The ASU modifies, and in certain cases eliminates, the disclosure requirements on fair value measurements in Topic 820. The amendments in ASU No. 2018-13 are effective for all entities for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2019. The Company adopted this ASU and has determined that it had no material effect on its consolidated financial statements and footnote disclosures for the year ended December 31, 2020.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef